More than 30 million Kenyans live in rural areas and most are engaged in small-scale agriculture and animal husbandry. Agriculture makes up 48% of Kenya's land use, but only 20% of this land is classified as medium- to high- potential and is inhabited by 75% of the population. Land tenure and distribution are politically-charged issues, partly due to illegal appropriations of public land by elites in the late 1980s and 1990s. Kenya has recently undertaken reforms aimed to better secure land rights and address long-standing conflicts. In 2009, the Parliament approved the National Land Policy and in 2010, Kenyans approved a new Constitution. New legislation is being developed to implement the Constitution and policy. These lessons offer insights into critical land issues in Kenya including government, civil society and international community approaches to address them.